Henry I of England

Wednesday, 5 August 2015

Henry I (c. one068 – 1 Gregorian calendar month 1135), additionally called Henry I, was King of England from 1100 to his death. Henry was the fourth son of William the master and was educated in Latin and also the humanities. On William's death in 1087, Henry's older brothers Henry M. Robert Curthose and {william rufus|William II|William Rufus|King of England|King of Great Britain} inheritable  geographical area and England, severally, however Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western geographical area from Henry M. Robert, however William and Henry M. Robert oust him in 1091. Henry bit by bit restored his power base within the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Henry M. Robert. Henry was gift once William died in an exceedingly searching accident in 1100, and he confiscated country throne, promising at his enthronization to correct several of William's less common policies. Henry married Matilda of European nation however continued  to own an oversized variety of mistresses, by whom he had several illegitimate kids.
Robert, World Health Organization invaded in 1101, controversial Henry's management of England. This campaign led to a negotiated settlement that confirmed Henry as king. The peace was impermanent , and Henry invaded the dukedom of geographical area in 1105 and 1106, finally defeating Henry M. Robert at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry unbroken Henry M. Robert unfree for the remainder of his life. Henry's management of geographical area was challenged by Louis the Wideawake of France, Baldwin of European nation and Fulk of Anjou, World Health Organization promoted the rival claims of Robert's son, William Clito, and supported a significant rebellion within the dukedom between 1116 and 1119. Following Henry's triumph at the Battle of Brémule, a favourable peace settlement was in agreement with Joe Louis in 1120.
Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh however effective ruler, Henry skillfully manipulated the barons in England and geographical area. In England, he player on the prevailing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, authorities and taxation, however additionally reinforced it with further establishments, as well as the royal monetary resource and itinerant justices. geographical area was additionally ruled through a growing system of justices associate degreed an monetary resource. several of the officers that ran Henry's system were "new men" of obscure backgrounds instead of from families of status, World Health Organization rose through the ranks as directors. Henry inspired faith reform, however became entangled in an exceedingly serious dispute in 1101 with bishop St. Anselm of town, that was resolved through a compromise resolution in 1105. He supported the Cluniac order and compete a significant role within the choice of the senior priesthood in England and geographical area.
Henry's solely legitimate son and heir, William Adelin, submerged within the White Ship disaster of 1120, throwing the royal succession into doubt. Henry took a second spouse, Adeliza, within the hope of getting another son, however their wedding was unfruitful. In response to the current, Henry declared his girl, Matilda, as his heir and married her to Geoffrey of Anjou. Relationships between Henry and also the couple became strained, and fighting stony-broke out on the border with Anjou. Henry died on one Gregorian calendar month 1135 once per week of sickness. Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his kinsman, author of Blois, leading to a amount of warfare called the disorder.

Early life, 1068–1099

Childhood and look, 1068–86

Henry was in all probability born in European nation in 1068, in either the summer or the last weeks of the year, presumably within the city of Selby in geographic area. His father was William, United Nations agency had originally been the Duke of geographic area so, following the invasion of 1066, became the King of European nation, with lands stretching into Wales. The invasion had created associate degree Anglo-Norman elite, several with estates unfold across each side of nation Channel. These Anglo-Norman barons usually had shut links to the dominion of France, that was then a loose assortment of counties and smaller polities, below solely the borderline management of the king.Henry's mother, Matilda of Flanders, was the grandchild of Robert II of France, and she or he in all probability named Henry when her uncle, King Henry Beauclerc of France.
Henry was the youngest of William and Matilda's four sons. Physically he resembled his older brothers Robert Curthose, Richard and William II, being, as historiographer David Carpenter describes, "short, heavyset and barrel-chested," with black hair. As a results of their age variations and Richard's early death, Henry would have in all probability seen comparatively very little of his older brothers. He in all probability knew his sister, Adela, well, because the 2 were pass on age. there's very little documentary proof for his early years; historians Warren Hollister and Kathleen Thompson recommend he was mentioned preponderantly in European nation, whereas Judith inexperienced argues he was at the start mentioned within the dukedom. He was in all probability educated by the Church, presumably by Bishop fern, the King's chancellor, at Harare Cathedral; it's unsure if this indicated associate degree intent by his oldsters for Henry to become a member of the priesthood. it's additionally unsure however so much Henry's education extended, however he was in all probability able to scan Latin and had some background within the field of study. He was given preparation by a tutor referred to as Robert Achard, and Henry was knighted by his father on twenty four might 1086.

Inheritance, 1087–88

13th century image
13th-century depiction of Henry
In 1087, William was fatally injured  throughout a campaign within the Vexin. Henry joined his dying father close to Rouen in Gregorian calendar month, wherever the King partitioned off his possessions between his sons. the foundations of succession in western Europe at the time were uncertain; in some elements of France, inheritance, within which the eldest son would inherit a title, was growing in quality. In alternative elements of Europe, together with geographic area and England, the tradition was for lands to be distributed, with the eldest son taking heritable lands – sometimes thought of to be the foremost valuable – and younger sons given smaller, or additional recently nonheritable, partitions or estates.

In dividing his lands, William seems to possess followed the Norman tradition, identifying between geographic area, that he had genetic, and England, that he had nonheritable through war. William's second son, Richard, had died during a searching accident, exploit Henry and his 2 brothers to inherit William's estate. Robert, the eldest, despite being in armed rebellion against his father at the time of his death, received geographic area. England was given to King of Great Britain, World Health Organization was in favour with the dying king. Henry was given an outsized add of cash, sometimes reportable as £5,000, with the expectation that he would even be given his mother's modest set of lands in Buckinghamshire and county. William's ceremonial occasion at Caen was marred by angry complaints from an area man, and Henry could are accountable for partitioning the dispute by shopping for off the protester with silver.

Robert came to geographic area, expecting to possess been given each the domain and England, to search out that King of Great Britain had crossed the Channel and been topped king, as King of England.the 2 brothers disagreed basically over the inheritance, associate degreed parliamentarian presently began to arrange an invasion of England to seize the dominion, helped by a rebellion by a number of the leading nobles against King of Great Britain.Henry remained in geographic area and took up a job inside Robert's court, probably either as a result of he was unwilling to overtly facet with King of Great Britain, or as a result of parliamentarian might need taken the chance to confiscate Henry's genetic cash if he had tried to depart. {william rufus|William II|William Rufus|King of England|King of Great Britain} sequestered Henry's new estates in England, exploit Henry landless.
In 1088, Robert's plans for the invasion of England began to falter, and he turned to Henry, proposing that his brother lend him a number of his inheritance, that Henry refused.Henry and parliamentarian then came to an alternate arrangement, within which parliamentarian would build Henry the count of western geographic area, in exchange for £3,000. Henry's lands were a brand new countship based mostly around a delegation of the noble authority within the Cotentin, however it extended across the Avranchin, with management over the bishoprics of each. This conjointly gave Henry influence over 2 major Norman leaders, Hugh d'Avranches and Richard DE Redvers, and also the abbey of Mont Saint-Michel, whose lands displayed any across the domain. Robert's invasion force did not leave geographic area, exploit {william rufus|William II|William Rufus|King of England|King of Great Britain} secure in England.

Government, family and household

Government, law and court

Henry's royal seal, showing the King on horseback (l) and sitting on his throne (r)
For a lot of details on English government throughout this era, see European nation within the Middle Ages.
Henry heritable the dominion of European nation from William Rufus, giving him a claim of suzerainty over Wales and European country, and purchased the demesne of Normandy, a posh entity with troubled borders.The borders between European nation and European country were still unsure throughout Henry's reign, with Anglo-French influence pushing northerly through Cumbria, however Henry's relationship with King David of European country was typically smart, part thanks to Henry's wedding to his girl. In Wales, Henry used his power to force and charm the autochthonic Welsh princes, whereas Norman Marcher Lords pushed across the valleys of South Wales. Normandy was controlled via varied interlocking networks of Lord, ecclesiastic and family contacts, backed by a growing string of necessary Lord castles on the borders. Alliances and relationships with neighbour counties on the Norman border were notably necessary to maintaining the steadiness of the demesne.
Henry dominated through the varied barons and lords in European nation and Normandy, whom he manipulated skillfully for political result. Political friendships, termed amicitia in Latin, were necessary throughout the twelfth century, and Henry maintained a large vary of those, mediating between his friends in varied factions across his realm once necessary, and rewardable those that were loyal to him. Henry conjointly had a name for hard those barons World Health Organization stood against him, and he maintained a good network of informers and spies World Health Organization rumored to him on events.Henry was a harsh, firm ruler, however not too therefore by the standards of the day. Over time, he enlarged the degree of his management over the barons, removing his enemies and bolstering his friends till the "reconstructed baronage", as scholarly person Warren Hollister describes it, was preponderantly loyal and addicted to the King.

Henry's itinerant royal court comprised varied components.At the center was Henry's domestic house, referred to as the domus; a wider grouping was termed the familia regis, and formal gatherings of the court were termed governing body. The domus was divided into many components. The chapel, headed by the chancellor, sorted the royal documents, the chamber handled money affairs and also the master-marshal was accountable for travel and accommodation. The familia regis enclosed Henry's mounted house troops, up to many hundred sturdy, World Health Organization came from a wider vary of social backgrounds, and will be deployed across European nation and Normandy as needed. at the start Henry continuing his father's apply of standard crown-wearing ceremonies at his governing body, however they became less frequent because the years passed. Henry's court was grand and ostentatious, finance the development of enormous new buildings and castles with a spread of precious gifts on show, as well as the King's non-public menagerie of exotic animals, that he unbroken at Woodstock Palace. Despite being an energetic community, Henry's court was a lot of tightly controlled than those of previous kings. Strict rules controlled personal behaviour and prohibited members of the court from pillage neighbour villages, as had been the norm underneath William Rufus.

Henry was accountable for a considerable growth of the royal justice system. In European nation, Henry player on the present Anglo-Saxon system of justice, government and taxes, however strong it with extra central governmental establishments. Roger of Harare began to develop the royal monetary resource when 1110, exploitation it to gather and audit revenues from the King's sheriffs within the shires. Itinerant justices began to emerge underneath Henry, motion round the country managing Lake Eyre courts, and lots of a lot of laws were formally recorded. Henry gathered increasing revenue from the growth of royal justice, each from fines and from fees. the primary Pipe Roll that's famous to own survived dates from 1130, recording royal expenditures. Henry reformed the coinage in 1107, 1108 and in 1125, inflicting harsh corporal punishments to English coiners World Health Organization had been found guilty of dishonourable the currency. In Normandy, Henry improved law and order when 1106, in operation through a body of Norman justices ANd an monetary resource system just like that in European nation. Norman establishments grew in scale and scope underneath Henry, though less quickly than in European nation.several of the officers that ran Henry's system were termed "new men", comparatively low-born people World Health Organization rose through the ranks as directors, managing justice or the royal revenues.



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