Sunday, 16 August 2015

Dvārakā, conjointly referred to as Dvāravatī (Sanskrit "the many-gated [city]") may be a sacred town in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The name Dvārakā is claimed to possess been given to the place by the Hindu god avatar.Dvārakā is one in all the Sapta Puri (seven sacred cities) of Hinduism.

In the sacred writing, it had been Associate in Nursing town situated in what's currently Dwarka, erstwhile referred to as Kushasthali, the fort of that had to be repaired by the Yadavas. during this epic, the town is delineate as a capital of the Anarta Kingdom. in step with the Harivamsa the town was situated within the region of the Sindhu Kingdom. in step with this Sanskrit literature, it had been engineered on proposal of Garuda for the asking of avatar by Vishwakarma, to secure the Yadava folks. They left the town of Mathura for Dvārakā as a result of Associate in Nursing attack of the 2 kings Kalayavana and Jarasandha before the Kurukshetra War, the nice war of the sacred writing.

Description within the Harivamsa

In Harivamsa, Dvārakā is delineate as mostly engineered on "submerged land", "released by the ocean" (2.55.118 and 2.58.34).

The city was the previous "sporting ground of the King Raivataka" referred to as "Dvāravāti", that "was square sort of a chess board" (2.56.29).

Nearby was the range of mountains Raivataka (2.56.27), "the living place of the gods" (2.55.111).
The city was measured by Brahmins; the foundations of the homes were arranged  and a minimum of a number of the homes were engineered by the Yadavas (2.58.9 - 15).

It was engineered by Vishvakarman in sooner or later (2.58.40) "mentally" (2.58.41 and 44).
It had encompassing walls (2.58.48 and 53) with four main gates (2.58.16).

Its homes were organized in lines (2.58.41) and also the town got "high buildings" (2.58.50 and 54) "made in gold" (2.58.53), that "almost touched the sky" (2.58.50) and "could be seen all over like clouds" (2.58.48).

It had a temple space with a palace for Krishna himself, that had a separate rest room (2.58.43).
It was a awfully wealthy town (2.58.47 - 66) and "the solely town on earth that was adorned  with gems" (2.58.49)

Dvārakā within the Mahabharata


The following description of Dvaraka throughout Krishna’s presence there seems within the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.69.1-12) in reference to the sage Narada’s visit.


Pandu's sons lived in Dwaraka throughout their exile to woods. Their servants headed by Indrasena lived there for one year (the thirteenth year) (4,72).

Bala Rama mentioned a few kill fireplace of Dwaraka, before he set for his pilgrim's journey over Sarasvati watercourse (9,35).

One ought to proceed with subdued senses and controlled diet to Dwaravati, wherever by bathing in "the holy known as Pindaraka", one obtaineth the fruit of the gift of gold in abundance (3,82).

King Nriga, in consequence of one fault of his, had to dwell for an extended time at Dwaravati, and avatar became the reason behind his rescue from that miserable plight.(13,72).

Sage Durvasa resided at Dwaravati for an extended time (13,160).

Arjuna visited Dwaravati throughout his campaign once the Kurukshetra War (14,83).

When the Pandavas retire from the globe they visit the place wherever Dvarka once wont to be and see town submerged underneath water.

Archaeological findings

Main article: underwater archaeology within the Gulf of Khambhat
On May 19, 2001, India's science and technology minister Murli Manohar Joshi proclaimed the finding of ruins within the Gulf of Khambhat. The ruins, referred to as the Gulf of Khambhat Cultural advanced (GKCC), area unit settled on the sea bottom of a nine-kilometer stretch off the coast of Gujarat at a depth of concerning forty m. the location was discovered by a team from the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) in Gregorian calendar month 2000 and investigated for 6 months with acoustic techniques.

A follow-up investigation was conducted by an equivalent institute in November 2001, including dredging to recover artifacts. A spherical of any underwater explorations was created within the Gulf of Khambhat website by the NIOT team from 2003 to 2004, and therefore the samples, getting of what was likely to be pottery, were sent to laboratories in Oxford, Britain and Hannover, Germany, moreover as many establishments inside Bharat, to be dated. during a 2003 paper A.S. Bibos gaurus and Sundaresh of National Institute of earth science concluded: "The gift excavation has thrown a light-weight on the cultural sequence of Bet Dwarka Island. round the seventeenth century B.C. Late Harappan individuals had established their settlement, and that they maybe migrated from Nageshwar, that is reachable. they need exploited marine resources like fish and univalve shells. It appears, that Late Harappans of Bet Dwarka island had interaction with the Saurashtra Harappans and that they could be visiting ports on the coast of the northern Saurashtra region. The scanty habitational deposit suggests, that the location was abandoned once some of centuries. The island was once more underpopulated throughout the eighth century B.C. on the southeastern coast of the island."

Inconclusive findings but, raised the likelihood, that the very recent samples, as argued for several alternative artifacts, recovered from the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), aren't unreal artifacts or potsherds, however rather geofacts and connected objects of natural origin.

Michael Witzel argues, that the "ruins" area unit either natural rock formations or the results of faulty remote sensing instrumentality which the "artifacts" recovered area unit either geofacts or foreign objects introduced to the location by the terribly sturdy recurrent event currents within the Gulf of Cambay. The facet scan navigational instrument instrumentality, accustomed image rock bottom of the Gulf, might are faulty, and therefore the claimed supporting proof is only specific.

One of the most controversies could be a piece of wood, that was carbon dated to around 7500 BCE, a date, that is employed in arguments for a awfully early date for a town here. Dr. D.P. Agrawal, chairman of the Paleoclimate cluster and founding father of Carbon-14 testing facilities in Bharat, expressed in a writing in Frontline Magazine, that the piece was dated double, at separate laboratories.The NGRI in Hyderabad came a date of 7190 BC and therefore the BSIP in Hannover came a date of 7545-7490 BC. Some archeologists, Agrawal above all, contend, that the invention of AN ANcient piece of wood doesn't imply the invention of an ancient civilization. Agrawal argues, that the wood piece could be a common notice, on condition that twenty,000 years agone the Arabian Sea was a hundred meters under its current level, which the gradual water level rise submerged entire forests.

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