Duke Kahanamoku

Monday, 24 August 2015

Duke Kahanamoku
Duke Kahanamoku c1912.jpg
Duke Kahanamoku c. 1912
Personal information
Full nameDuke Paoa Kahinu Mokoe Hulikohola Kahanamoku
Nickname(s)"The Duke," "The Big Kahuna"
National team United States
BornAugust 24, 1890
HaleʻākalaHonoluluKingdom of Hawaii
DiedJanuary 22, 1968 (aged 77)
Honolulu, Hawaii[1]
Height6 ft (180 cm)[1]
Weight190 lb (86 kg)[1]
ClubWaikiki Beach Boys
Duke Paoa Kahinu Mokoe Hulikohola Kahanamoku (August twenty four, 1890 – Gregorian calendar month twenty two, 1968) was AN yank competition swimmer of ethnic Hawaiian background, WHO is wide attributable with spreading the game of water sport. He was a five-time Olympic medalist in swimming. He was conjointly AN actor, lawman, early beach player, and man of affairs

Early years

His birthplace is controversial with several sources stating Haleakalā on Maui or Waikiki on Oahu. in step with Kahanamoku, he explicit  he was born at state capital at Haleʻākala, the house of Bernice Pauahi Bishop that was later born-again into the metropolis edifice. He had 5 brothers and 3 sisters, together with Samuel Kahanamoku. In 1893, the family touched to Kālia, Waikiki (near this web site of the Hilton Hawaiian Village), to be nearer to his mother's folks and family. Duke grew up along with his siblings and thirty one Paoa cousins.:17 Duke attended the Waikiki synchronic linguistics faculty, Kaahumanu faculty, and also the Kamehameha colleges, though he ne'er graduated as a result of he had quit to assist support the family.

"Duke" wasn't a title or a nickname, however a name. He was named when his father, Duke Halapu Kahanamoku, World Health Organization was christened by Bernice Pauahi Bishop in honor of patrician Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, World Health Organization was visiting Hawaii at the time. The younger Duke, as eldest son, transmitted the name. His father was a peace officer. His mother Julia Paʻakonia Lonokahikina Paoa was a deeply non secular girl with a robust sense of family ancestry.

When Duke became a menage name owing to his swimming feats, many of us assumed he was of Hawaiian royalty. it absolutely was assumed by many who he was a duke which it absolutely was his title. He was a awfully modest and modest man World Health Organization got a chuckle of being thought of as royalty and ne'er hesitated to line the record straight concerning his lineage.

Although not of the Hawaiian royal line, his folks were from distinguished Hawaiian families; the Kahanamoku and also the Paoa clans were thought of to be lower chiefs or nobles, World Health Organization were of service to the aliʻi nui or royalty. His paternal grandparents were Kahanamoku and grandma, Kapiolani Kaoeha, a descendant of King Alapainui. They were kahu, retainers and sure advisors of the Kamehamehas, to whom they were connected. His maternal grandparents Paoa, son of Paoa Hoolae and Hiikaalani, and Mele Uliama were additionally of mainly descent.

Growing abreast of the outskirts of Waikiki, Kahanamoku spent his youth as a brunet  beach boy. At Waikiki Beach he developed his water sport and swimming skills. In his youth, Kahanamoku most well-liked a standard surf board, that he referred to as his "papa nui", created when the style of ancient Hawaiian "olo" boards. made up of the wood of a koa tree, it absolutely was sixteen feet (4.9 m) long and weighed 114 pounds (52 kg). The board was while not a brace, that had however to be fictitious. In his later career, he would typically use smaller boards however continually most well-liked those made from wood.

On August eleven, 1911, Kahanamoku was regular at fifty five.4 seconds within the one hundred yards (91 m) race, beating the present record by four.6 seconds, within the salt water of state capital Harbor. He additionally stone-broke the record within the 220 yd (200 m) and equaled it within the fifty yd (46 m). however the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), in disbelief, wouldn't acknowledge these feats till a few years later. The AAU at first claimed that the judges should are victimization alarm clocks instead of stopwatches and later claimed that ocean currents power-assisted Kahanamoku.

Career and bequest

Kahanamoku simply qualified for the U.S. Olympic swimming team in 1912. At the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, he won a ribbon within the 100-meter race, and a ribbon with the second-place U.S. team within the men's room 4x200-meter race relay. throughout the 1920 Olympics in port, he won gold medals each within the a hundred meters (bettering fellow Hawaiian Pua Kealoha) and within the relay. He finished the a hundred meters with a ribbon throughout the 1924 Olympics in Paris, with the gold aiming to Johnny Weissmuller and therefore the bronze to Duke's brother, Samuel Kahanamoku. At age 34, this was Kahanamoku's last Olympic accolade. He conjointly was associate alternate for the U.S. athletic game team at the 1932 Summer Olympics.

Between Olympic competitions, and once retiring from the Olympics, Kahanamoku traveled internationally to relinquish swimming exhibitions. it absolutely was throughout this era that he popularized the game of surfriding, antecedently far-famed solely in Hawaii, by incorporating surfriding exhibitions into these visits likewise. His surfriding exhibition at Sydney's fresh Beach on Gregorian calendar month twenty four, 1914 is wide considered a seminal event within the development of surfriding in Australia. The board that Kahanamoku designed from a chunk of pine from an area ironmongery shop is maintained by the fresh Surf Club. there's a sculpture of Kahanamoku on the Northern natural elevation of fresh Beach, New South Wales. He created surfriding widespread in land America 1st in 1912 whereas in Southern CA.

During his time living in Southern CA, Kahanamoku performed in Hollywood as a background actor and a personality actor in many films. during this approach, he created connections with people that might additional publicize the game of surfriding. Kahanamoku was attached  the l.  a.   Athletic Club, acting as tender and competitory on each swimming and athletic game groups.

While living in Newport Beach, CA on day, 1925, Kahanamoku reclaimed eight men from a watercraft that capsized in serious surf whereas making an attempt to enter the city's harbor. twenty nine fishermen went into the water and seventeen perished. exploitation his board, he was ready to build fast journeys back and forth to shore to extend the amount of sailors reclaimed. 2 alternative surfers saved four additional fishermen. Newport's police officer at the time known as Duke's efforts "the most powerful board rescue act the planet has ever seen."

In 1940, he married Nadine Alexander, UN agency accompanied  him once he traveled. Kahanamoku was the primary person to be inducted into each the Swimming Hall of Fame and therefore the surfriding Hall of Fame. The Duke Kahanamoku invited surfriding Championships ar named in his honor. he's a member of the U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame. He served as peace officer of Honolulu, Hawaii from 1932 to 1961, serving thirteen consecutive terms. throughout this era, he conjointly appeared during a variety of tv programs and films, like Mr Roberts (1955).

Kahanamoku was a lover and surfriding companion of inheritrix Doris Duke, UN agency designed a home (now a museum) on island named heaven.

Hawaii music promoter Kimo Wilder McVay capitalized on Kahanamoku's quality by naming his vacation spot saleroom "Duke Kahanamoku's", and giving Kahanamoku a chunk of the money action in exchange for the utilization of his name. it absolutely was a serious vacation spot saleroom within the Nineteen Sixties and is remembered because the home of Don Ho & The Aliis from 1964 through 1969.

Kahanamoku's name is additionally utilized by Duke's Canoe Club & Barefoot Bar, a ground bar and building within the stabilizer vacation spot On The Beach edifice. there's a sequence of restaurants named once him in CA and Hawaii known as Duke's. A bronze sculpture at vacation spot beach in Honolulu honors his memory. It shows Kahanamoku standing ahead of his board along with his arms extended. several honor him by inserting leis on his sculpture. there's a digital camera observance the sculpture, permitting guests from round the world to wave to their friends.

On August twenty four, 2002, that was conjointly the 112th day of remembrance of the birth of Duke Kahanamoku, a 37c fantabulous letter rate item of the us mail service with Duke's image on, was issued. the primary Day Ceremony was command at the Hilton Hawaiian Village in vacation spot and was attended by thousands. At this ceremony, attendees might attach the Duke stamp to associate envelope and obtain it canceled with a primary Day of Issue postmark. These 1st Day Covers ar terribly collectable.

On Feb twenty eight, 2015 a monument that includes a reproduction of Kahanamoku's board was unveiled  at New city beach, metropolis, New Seeland in honour of the a centesimal day of remembrance of Kahanamoku's visit to New city.

On August twenty fourth, 2015, a Google Doodle honored the one hundred and twenty fifth day of remembrance of Duke Kahanamoku's birthday.

Duncan v. Kahanamoku

Kahanamoku was the professional forma litigant within the landmark Supreme Court case Isadora Duncan v. Kahanamoku. whereas Kahanamoku was a MP officer throughout warfare II, he in remission Isadora Duncan for public intoxication. At the time, Hawaii, not however a state, was being administered below the Hawaiian Organic Act that effectively instituted jurisprudence on the island. Isadora Duncan was thus tried by a military judicature and appealed to the Supreme Court. in a very logical fallacy ruling, the court dominated that trial by military judicature was, during this case, unconstitutional.


Kahanamoku died of a coronary failure on January twenty two, 1968, at the age of seventy seven. For his burial perplexed an extended procession of mourners, among a 30-man police escort, rapt across city to vacation spot Beach. Reverend patriarch Akaka, the pastor of Kawaiahao Church, performed the service. a gaggle of beach boys herb Hawaiian songs, together with "Aloha Oe". His ashes were scattered into the ocean


Joseph Stalin

Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin
Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин
Stalin at the Tehran Conference in 1943.
General secretary of the Central Committeeof the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
In office
3 April 1922 – 16 October 1952
Preceded byVyacheslav Molotov
(as Responsible Secretary)
Succeeded byNikita Khrushchev
(office reestablished)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
In office
6 May 1941 – 5 March 1953
First DeputiesNikolai Voznesensky
Vyacheslav Molotov
Nikolai Bulganin
Preceded byVyacheslav Molotov
Succeeded byGeorgy Malenkov
Personal details
BornIoseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili
18 December 1878
GoriTiflis Governorate,Russian Empire
Died5 March 1953 (aged 74)
Kuntsevo DachaKuntsevo,Russian SFSRSoviet Union
Resting placeLenin's Mausoleum, Moscow (9 March 1953 – 31 October 1961)
Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow (from 31 October 1961)
Political partyCommunist Party of the Soviet Union
Spouse(s)Ekaterina Svanidze (1906–1907)
Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1919–1932)
ChildrenYakov DzhugashviliVasily DzhugashviliSvetlana Alliluyeva
ParentsBesarion Jughashvili andKetevan Geladze
AwardsHero of the Soviet Union Hero of Socialist Labor medal.png Badge Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.jpg
Ordervictory rib.png Ordervictory rib.png
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png 20 years saf rib.png Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order suvorov1 rib.png Ribbon bar for the medal for the Defense of Moscow.png Orderglory rib.png
OrdenSuheBator.png OrdenSuheBator.png Victoryjapan rib.png Victoryjapan rib.png
800thMoscowRibbon.png Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png Order redstar rib.png
Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png TCH Rad Bileho Lva 5 tridy (1990) BAR.svg TCH Rad Bileho Lva 1 tridy (pre1990) BAR.svg Czechoslovak War Cross 1939-1945 Bar.png
Military service
Allegiance Soviet Union
Service/branchSoviet Armed Forces
Years of service1943–1953
RankMarshal of the Soviet Union(1943–1945)
Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (1945–1953)
CommandsAll (supreme commander)
Battles/warsWorld War I
Russian Civil War
Polish–Soviet War
World War II

Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; eighteen December 1878 – five March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s till his death in 1953. Holding the post of the overall secretary of the Central Committee of the political party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state.

Stalin was one among the seven members of the primary committee, based in 1917 so as to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, aboard Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Sokolnikov and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries World Health Organization took half within the Russian Revolution of 1917, communist was appointed General Secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He afterward managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov through suppressing Lenin's criticisms (in the postscript of his testament) and increasing the functions of his role, all the whereas eliminating any opposition. He remained general secretary till the post was abolished in 1952, at the same time serving because the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 onward.

Under Stalin's rule, the conception of "Socialism in One Country" became a central church doctrine of Soviet society, contrary to Leon Trotsky's read that socialism should be unfold through continuous international revolutions. He replaced the New policy introduced by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin within the early Nineteen Twenties with a extremely centralised command economy, launching a amount of manufacture associated constitution that resulted within the speedy transformation of the land from associate rural society into an industrial power. but, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of countless folks in POW camp labour camps. The initial upheaval in agriculture noncontinuous food production and contributed to the harmful Soviet famine of 1932–33, referred to as the Holodomor in Ukrayina. Between 1934 and 1939 he organized and light-emitting diode a huge purge (known as "Great Purge") of the party, government, soldiers and clerisy, within which countless questionable "enemies of the operating class" were captive, exiled or dead, usually while not group action. Major figures within the political party and government, and plenty of Red Army high commanders, were killed when being guilty of treason in show trials.

In August 1939, when failing makes an attempt to conclude anti-Hitler pacts with alternative major European powers, communist entered into a non-aggression accord with Reich that divided their influence and territory at intervals japanese Europe, leading to their invasion of Polska in Sept of that year, however Federal Republic of Germany later profaned the agreement and launched a huge invasion of the Soviet Union in Gregorian calendar month 1941. Despite serious human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion when the decisive Battles of national capital and metropolis. when defeating the Axis powers on the japanese Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in might 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. The Soviet Union afterward emerged collectively of 2 recognized world superpowers, the opposite being the u.  s.. Communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union were established in most countries free of German occupation by the Red Army, that later deep-seated the japanese axis. communist additionally fostered shut relations with revolutionist in China and Kim Il-sung in North Korea.
Stalin light-emitting diode the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction part, that saw a big rise in tension with the Western world that may later be referred to as the conflict. throughout this era, the land became the second country within the world to with success develop a W.M.D., yet as launching the good set up for the Transformation of Nature in response to a different widespread famine and also the nice Construction comes of Communism.
In the years following his death, communist and his regime are condemned on various occasions, most notably in 1956 once his successor statesman denounced his inheritance and initiated a method of de-Stalinization. communist remains a polemic figure these days, with several concerning him as a tyrant.but, public opinion at intervals the country is mixed. the precise variety of deaths caused by Stalin's regime continues to be a theme of discussion, however it's wide united to be within the order of millions


Elephantomyia brevipalpa

Sunday, 23 August 2015

Elephantomyia (Elephantomyia) brevipalpa is AN extinct species of dipterous insect within the family Limoniidae. The species is entirely noted from the center Eocene Baltic amber deposits within the Baltic region of Europe. The species is one amongst six represented from Baltic amber.

Elephantomyia brevipalpa
Temporal range: Middle Eocene
Elephantomyia brevipalpa specimen MP3323.jpg
E. (E.) brevipalpa female
Scientific classificatione
Species:E. brevipalpa
Binomial name
Elephantomyia brevipalpa
(Loew, 1850)
  • Toxorhina brevipalpa
  • Limnobiorhynchus brevipalpa

History and classification

Elephantomyia (Elephantomyia) brevipalpa is thought from the example specimen, assortment variety MB.J.337, together with 2 more adults that area unit preserved as inclusions in clear Baltic amber. As of 2015, 2 of the amber specimens were enclosed within the collections of the University of Göttingen, whereas the third was housed at the Polish Academy of Sciences. Baltic amber is recovered from fossil bearing rocks within the Baltic Sea region of Europe. Estimates of the age date between thirty seven million years recent, for the youngest sediments and forty eight million years recent. This age vary straddles the center epoch, starting from close to the start of the Lutetian to the start of the Pribonian. E. brevipalpa is one among six dipteran species within the genus Elephantomyia represented from the Baltic amber, the others being E. baltica, E. bozenae, E. irinae, E. longirostris, and E. pulchella. All six species area unit placed into the Elephantomyia taxon Elephantomyia supported the shortage of leg bone spurs and by many aspects of the wing morphology.

The fossil was initial studied by animal scientist Arminius Loew of the Deutschland, along with his kind description of the new species being revealed in 1851 as Toxorhina brevipalpa, although he revealed the nomen nudum name a year earlier. The species was emotional to the genus Limnobiorhynchus in 1860 by Carl Robert Osten-Sacken, and later emotional by Osten-Sacken once more, now to the genus Elephantomyia. The fossil was reexamined and therefore the species redescribed in 2015 by paleoentomologist Iwona Kania of the University of Rzeszów, United Nations agency examined the example and therefore the 2 further specimens.

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The E. brevipalpa example and one in all the extra specimens ar preserved males, whereas the third specimen could be a feminine that's some five.1 mm (0.20 in) long, not together with stage. the pinnacle contains a rostrum that's a pair of.86 mm (0.113 in) long, as 0.5 the length of the fore-wing and also the abdomen. stage has notably short palpus at the tip.every palpus consists of 4 segments, totaling less then 0.5 the length of the glossal lobes on stage. The third section is associate degree elongate cylinders whereas the fourth is extremely short. The antennae ar little, composed of associate degree elongated scape and widened peduncle. because the flagellomeres progress from the bottom to the tip of the antennae they modify from squat and huddled along to elongated. The basal flagellomeres don't have any setae, whereas 3 setae ar found on flagellomeres six and seven. Flagellomeres eight through eleven have 2 elongated setae, and also the top flagellomere has four terribly elongate setae. The wings ar four.68 mm (0.184 in) long with a pale brown pterostigma that's oval in form and any towards the wing base then in alternative Baltic amber species. The Rs vein, as selected by the Comstock–Needham system, is as regarding one third the length of the connected R2+3+4 vein.

Madras Day

Saturday, 22 August 2015

Madras Day may be a day of celebrations unionized within the town of Madras (Chennai), the capital town of the Indian state of Madras. it's celebrated on twenty two August once a year, and is known as once town. It commemorates the start of the fashionable town by establishing Fort St martyr on atiny low piece of land nonheritable from the last King of Chandragiri in 1639 by a people East India Company. The celebrations embrace many events unionized as well as voters and students and lasts for every week.


See also: History of Madras
The modern history of the town dates back to 1639 once Francis Day of Brits East India Company bought alittle strip of land on the Coromandel Coast from the Vijayanagara King, Peda Venkata Raya in Chandragiri. The region was dominated by Damerla Venkatapathy, the Nayak of Vandavasi. He granted Brits permission to create a manufactory and warehouse for his or her commercialism enterprises. A year later, Brits designed Fort St St. George, that became the nucleus of the growing colonial town.

Birth of Madras Day

The idea to celebrate the birth of the town per annum was born once journalists Shashi Nair and Vincent D'Souza met the city's student and Editor of Madras Musings, S. Muthiah at his residence for low. it had been supported the success of another event known as Mylapore competition that D'Souza had been organising per annum in Gregorian calendar month. it had been set by the trio to begin celebrating Madras Day from 2004. per them, "primary motive of celebrating `Madras Day' was to specialise in the town, its past and its gift." the thought ab initio started off with regarding 5 events in 2004, however with 2008, has over sixty completely different events related to the day together with heritage walks, icon walks, lectures, poetry and caption and quiz contests, food festivals and a Bullet tour lasting for every week.

Significance of twenty-two August

It was on twenty two August 1639 that a sliver of land, wherever currently stands Fort St George, was two-handed over by the native Nayak rulers to the East Indies Company’s Francis Day, his dubash Beri Thimmappa, and their superior, Saint Andrew Cogan. From this tiny 3 sq. miles given to the East Indies Company grew the town of Madras wherever over four and a 0.5 million individuals live currently.As years glided by out of the fort grew settlements and therefore the villages around it were brought in conjunction with the previous and new cities connected up and thence birth of a town.

Controversies concerning the date

There had been an issue concerning the precise day once Madras was two-handed over to nation East Indies Company's Francis Day and Saint Andrew Cogan between the dates twenty two August and twenty two Gregorian calendar month. The disceptation arose since the agreement documents dates the records to twenty two Gregorian calendar month 1639 instead of twenty two August of that year. it's usually declared that since Francis Day and Saint Andrew Cogan didn't arrive to the Madras coast till twenty seven Gregorian calendar month 1639. The proof comes from writings of Henry Davison Love, whose monumental three-volume history of Madras from 1640-1800 is that the Bible of all searchers once Madras’s early history, that states that "The Naik’s grant, mistakenly titled a farman, that was in all probability written by Day, was delivered to Saint Andrew Cogan at Masulipatam on September three, 1639... 3 copies square measure existent ... all of that square measure supported by Cogan. solely the last bears a date, twenty two Gregorian calendar month 1639, wherever Gregorian calendar month is maybe a blunder for August, since Day didn't reach Madras till twenty seven July".

The Celebration

Originally, this celebration accustomed last for daily however currently it extends for every week. Madras Day focuses on the town, its history, its past and its gift and therefore the core team motivates communities, groups, firms and campuses within the town to host events that commemorate the town.The celebration consists of events like heritage walks (including a "tree walk"), public talks, exhibitions, poetry reading sessions, public performances, food festivals and special programs on native radio. It additionally includes contests like, shirt coming up with, motion picture contest, multimedia system presentation for faculties and quiz in each Tamil and English. T-shirts to mark the event also are discharged. The talks delivered to mark the week-long celebrations sometimes involve lectures explaining the heritage and history of the town. There also are events for the retired voters wherever they will post their life years past on the "Stories regarding Madras section" on Madras day's web site and their views on however Madras grew into the Chennai of these days.

Indian communication department discharged a communication cowl to commemorate Madras day on twenty two August 2007.

Special radio broadcast

The special broadcast for Madras Day within the past enclosed `Putham Puthu Kalai', a programme highlight the necessary landmarks of Chennai, with author Ashokamitran, student S. Muthiah, Vincent D'Souza and author Randor Guy as participants. It additionally enclosed `Madras Nalla Madras', a compilation of film songs on Chennai by city Hindu deity and comedian Loose Mohan providing a native bit together with his Madras non-standard speech.


When it started in 2004 solely Associate in Nursing few pictures were displayed in Rajaji Hall wherever the Madras Day celebrations was organized. Later in 2005 it had picked momentum wherever 3 men exhibited their assortment of coins, books, maps and pictures at statesman Hall in Fort St. George. In 2006 a dozen participants, together with the archaeologic Society of Asian country and Southern Railway, have displayed their assortment. The buildings that dotted Chennai's skyline within the last three hundred years narrate the story of its builders. Fort St. George presently homes a minimum of fifty to sixty heritage buildings by one estimate. solely pictures of buildings beneath the ASI square measure on show. The exhibition illustrated however business formed Chennai's economic process. The exhibition additionally derived the 200-year history of depository financial institution of Asian country, besides providing a show of coins and currency notes issued over the centuries. because the town swollen, mass transport evolved. Rare, out-of-print books and maps, paintings of buildings that have since been demolished down were additionally on show.


The shirt marking the celebrations square measure white with a standard Dravidian written on a mud-coloured background and bear the inscription, "Namma ."

Madras Quiz

The Madras Day celebrations and every one the bash culminates annually with the Madras Quiz, one by one in Tamil and English. this is often expedited by the Mylapore Times.

Many quiz enthusiasts come back for an equivalent. The quiz is kind of competitive in terms of content.

The 2009 edition of the Madras Quiz in English was conducted by the Indian Quizzing League.

Stages of history

Friday, 21 August 2015


Historical study usually focuses on events and developments that occur specifically blocks of your time. Historians offer these periods of your time names so as to permit "organising concepts and grouping generalisations" to be employed by historians.The names given to a amount will vary with geographical location, as will the dates of the beginning and finish of a selected amount. Centuries and decades square measure usually used periods and also the time they represent depends on the geological dating system used. Most periods square measure made retrospectively so mirror worth judgments created concerning the past. The manner periods square measure made and also the names given to them will have an effect on the manner they're viewed and studied.

Prehistoric periodisation

The field of history usually leaves period of time to the archaeologists, United Nations agency have entirely totally different sets of tools and theories. the same old technique for periodisation of the distant prehistoric past, in archaeology is to consider changes in material culture and technology, like the period, Bronze Age and Iron Age and their sub-divisions conjointly supported totally different varieties of material remains. Despite the event over recent decades of the power through geological dating and different scientific strategies to offer actual dates for several sites or artefacts, these long-established schemes appear doubtless to stay in use. In several cases neighboring cultures with writing have left some history of cultures while not it, which can be used.

Stages of history

Main article: Marx's theory of history § The stages of history
The Marxian theory of history identifies 5 stages of history:

Primitive communism

The First Stage:
  is typically known as primitive communism. it's the subsequent characteristics.

Shared property: there's no thought of possession on the far side individual possessions. All is shared by the tribe to make sure its survival.[citation needed]

Hunting and gathering: social group societies have however to develop giant scale agriculture so their survival may be a daily struggle.[citation needed]

Proto-democracy: there's sometimes no thought of "leadership" however. thus tribes square measure crystal rectifier by the simplest individual if there's war, the simplest diplomat if they need steady contact with different tribes so forth.

Slave society

The Second Stage: could also be known as slave society, thought of to be the start of "class society" wherever personal estate seems.

Class: here the thought of sophistication seems. there's continually a slave-owning upper class and therefore the slaves themselves.

Statism: the state develops throughout this stage as a tool for the slave-owners to use and management the slaves.

Agriculture: folks learn to cultivate plants and animals on {a giant|an outsized|an oversized} enough scale to support large populations.

Democracy and authoritarianism: these opposites develop at a similar stage. Democracy arises 1st with the event of the republican city-state, followed by the totalitarian empire.
Private property: voters currently own over belongings. Land possession is particularly vital throughout a time of agricultural development.


The Third Stage: could also be known as feudalism; it seems when slave society collapses. This was most evident throughout the ecu Middle Ages once society went from slavery to social system.

Aristocracy: the state is dominated by monarchs UN agency inherit their positions, or sometimes marry or conquer their ways that into leadership.

Theocracy: this is often a time of for the most part non secular rule. once there's only 1 faith within the land and its organizations have an effect on all elements of lifestyle.

Hereditary categoryes: castes will generally kind and one's class is set at birth with no type of advancement. This was the case with Bharat.

Nation-state: nations square measure fashioned from the remnants of the fallen empires. generally to construct themselves into empires another time. like England's transition from a province to AN empire.


Leptophlebia marginata

Leptophlebia marginata, the sepia dun, could be a species of ephemeropteran within the family Leptophlebiidae. it's native to Europe and North America wherever it's distributed wide close to lakes, ponds and slow streams. The larvae, that ar referred to as nymphs, ar aquatic.

Distribution and habitat

Leptophlebia marginata happens within the holarctic region, in Europe and North America, together with each temperate and Arctic habitats.
it's related to the sides of lakes and ponds, and also the backwaters of slow rivers and streams.


Adult Leptophlebia marginata emerge from the aquatic nymph's final moult throughout daytime in early summer. the ultimate arthropod nymph crawls to the surface of the water, or climbs onto associate nascent plant stem, a stick or a rock, its skin splits and it emerges as a winged adult. The males fly in swarms throughout the day. impregnated females have concerning 1200 eggs and fly over the water, dipping the information of their abdomens within the water to get little batches of eggs, or landing concisely on the surface to deposit their eggs. after they end birthing, they're exhausted and shortly die.

The eggs hatch into aquatic nymphs that go on or within the sediment at rock bottom of shallow water and climb concerning on submerged plants. They kill detritus, winnowing organic particles from the mud. Their amount of development lasts for nearly a year by which era they're able to remodel into adults. there's one generation every year.

L. marginata will act as associate alternate host for the parasitic worm Cystidicoloides tenuissima that infects soft-finned fish fish (salmon and trout) and is found in their stomachs. The shadfly nymph feeds on the eggs of the worm, and if the nymph is ingested by a fish of the soft-finned fish family, then the fish becomes infected.

Tests were undertaken on the results of pollutants and acidic conditions on this ephemerid. The nymphs were very {little} plagued by low hydrogen ion concentration values and bio-accumulated Cd with little apparent adverse result, however emergence was perceptibly reduced. in a very separate experiment, increasing levels of iron at low and traditional hydrogen ion concentration levels caused the nymphs to prevent feeding and become constipated , however few died except at low hydrogen ion concentration and high levels of iron. once came to traditional conditions, the nymphs resumed feeding and growth.


Jump up ^ The Transactions of the Royal zoological science Society of London. The Society. 1871. p. 46.
^ Jump up to: a b c "Leptophlebia marginata (Sepia dun)". Riverflies observation information. The Riverfly Partnership. Retrieved 2015-07-14.
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