A. P. J. Abdul Kalam the great man

Tuesday, 28 July 2015

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen "A. P. J." Abdul Kalam  fifteen Gregorian calendar month 1931 – twenty seven July 2015) was the eleventh President of Bharat from 2002 to 2007. A career man of science turned reluctant politician, Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and part engineering. He spent consequent four decades as a man of science and science administrator, chiefly at the Defence analysis and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian house analysis Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately concerned in India's civilian programme and military missile development efforts.He so came to be called the Missile Man of Bharat for his work on the event of missile and launch vehicle technology. He conjointly contend a crucial  structure, technical and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the primary since the first nuclear take a look at by Bharat in 1974.

Kalam was elective  President of Bharat in 2002 with the support of each the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and also the opposition Indian National Congress. once serving a term of 5 years, he came back to his civilian lifetime of education, writing and public service. He received many prestigious awards, together with the Asian country Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
Apj abdul kalam.JPG
Kalam at the International Book Fair, Trivandrum, 2014
11th President of India
In office
25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
Prime MinisterAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Manmohan Singh
Vice PresidentKrishan Kant
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
Preceded byK. R. Narayanan
Succeeded byPratibha Patil
Personal details
BornAvul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
15 October 1931
Rameswaram, Ramanathapuram District, British India
(now in Tamil Nadu, India)
Died27 July 2015 (aged 83)
Shillong, Meghalaya, India
Alma materSt. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli
Madras Institute of Technology
Aerospace scientist
ReligionIslam[citation needed]

Early life and education

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on fifteen Gregorian calendar month 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in Rameswaram within the Indian state of Madras. His father's name was Jainulabudeen, a ship owner, and his mother Ashiamma, a wife.He came from a poor background and commenced functioning at AN early age to supplement his family's financial gain.once finishing faculty, Kalam distributed newspapers to contribute to his father's financial gain. In his faculty years he had average grades however was delineate as a bright and diligent student UN agency had a robust need to be told and pay hours on his studies, particularly arithmetic. once finishing his education at the Ramanathapuram Schwartz matric faculty, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph's faculty, Tiruchirappalli, then related to with the University of Madras, from wherever he graduated in physics in 1954. Towards the top of the course, he wasn't passionate about the topic and would later regret the four years he studied it. He moved  to Madras in 1955 to check part engineering. whereas Kalam was engaged on a class project, the Dean was discontent together with his lack of progress and vulnerable to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished among consequent 3 days. Kalam met the point, impressing the Dean, UN agency later aforesaid to him, "I was golf shot you beneath stress and asking you to satisfy a tough deadline". He narrowly uncomprehensible achieving his dream of changing into a combat pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and solely eight positions were on the market within the IAF

Career as a scientist

This was my 1st stage, during which I learnt leadership from 3 nice teachers—Dr Vikram Sarabhai , academician Satish Dhawan and Dr Brahm Prakash. This was the time of learning and acquisition of information on behalf of me.

A P J Abdul Kalam
After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the physical science Development institution of the Defence analysis and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a human. He started his career by coming up with alittle eggbeater for the Indian Army, however remained unconvinced  by his alternative of employment at DRDO.Kalam was additionally a part of the INCOSPAR committee operating below Vikram Sarabhai, the illustrious area human. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian area analysis Organisation (ISRO) wherever he was the project director of India's 1st Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) that with success deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had 1st started work on associate expandable rocket project severally at DRDO in 1965.In 1969, Kalam received the government's approval and swollen the programme to incorporate a lot of engineers.

Kalam addresses engineering students at IIT Guwahati
In 1963–64, he visited NASA's Langley research facility in Lionel Hampton, Virginia, physicist area Flight Center in belt, Maryland and Wallops Flight Facility. Between the Seventies and Nineties, Kalam created a shot to develop the Polar Satellite Launching Vehicle (PSLV) and SLV-III comes, each of that well-tried to achieve success.

Kalam was invited by Raja Ramanna to witness the country's 1st nuclear check Smiling Buddha because the representative of TBRL, even supposing he had not participated in its development. within the Seventies, Kalam additionally directed 2 comes, Project Devil and Project courageous, that wanted to develop trajectory missiles from the technology of the triple-crown SLV programme. Despite the disapproval of the Union cupboard, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi assigned secret funds for these part comes through her discretionary powers below Kalam's office. Kalam compete associate integral role convincing the Union cupboard to hide truth nature of those classified part comes.His analysis and academic leadership brought him nice laurels and status within the Eighties, that prompted the govt. to initiate a sophisticated missile programme below his office. Kalam and Dr V S Arunachalam, applied scientist and scientific authority to the Defence Minister, worked on the suggestion by the then Defence Minister, R. Venkataraman on a proposal for concurrent development of a quiver of missiles rather than taking planned missiles one once another. R Venkatraman was instrumental in obtaining the cupboard approval for allocating ₹388 crores for the mission, named Integrated missile Development Programme (IGMDP) and appointed Kalam because the chief govt. Kalam compete a significant half in developing several missiles below the mission as well as Hindu deity, associate intermediate vary missile and Prithvi, the military science surface-to-surface missile, though the comes are criticised for misdirection and price and time overruns.

Kalam served because the Chief Scientific authority to the Prime Minister and also the Secretary of the Defence analysis and Development Organisation from July 1992 to Gregorian calendar month 1999. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted throughout this era during which he compete associate intensive political and technological role. Kalam served because the Chief Project arranger, in conjunction with Rajagopala Chidambaram, throughout the testing section. Media coverage of Kalam throughout this era created him the country's best famed nuclear human. but, the director of the positioning check, K Santhanam, aforesaid that the fusion bomb had been a "fizzle" associated criticisied Kalam for issuance an incorrect report. each Kalam and Chidambaram laid-off the claims.

In 1998, in conjunction with medical specialist Soma Raju, Kalam developed an occasional value coronary tubing, named the "Kalam-Raju Stent". In 2012, the couple designed a rugged pill laptop for health care in rural areas, that was named the "Kalam-Raju Tablet".


Kalam served because the eleventh President of India, succeeding K. R. Narayanan. He won the 2002 presidential election with associate degree electoral vote of 922,884, surpassing the 107,366 votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. He served from twenty five July 2002 to twenty five July 2007.
On ten June 2002, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) that was in power at the time, expressed that they might nominate Kalam for the post of President, and each the Samajwadi Party and also the Nationalist Congress Party backed his movement. when the Samajwadi Party proclaimed its support for Kalam, Narayanan selected to not obtain a second term in workplace, deed the sphere clear.Kalam same of the announcement of his candidature:

I am extremely flooded. everyplace each in net and in different media, I actually have been asked for a message. i used to be thinking what message I will offer to the individuals of the country at this juncture.

On 18 June, Kalam filed his nomination papers within the Indian Parliament, in the middle of Vajpayee and his senior cupboard colleagues.

Kalam at the side of solon and Manmohan Singh throughout his presidency
The polling for the presidential election began on fifteen July 2002 in Parliament and also the state assemblies, with the media claiming that the election was a one-sided affair and Kalam's success was a bypast conclusion; the count was endured eighteen July.Kalam became the eleventh president of the Republic of India in a simple success, and emotional into the Rashtrapati Bhavan when he was sworn in on twenty five July. Kalam was the third President of India to possess been worthy with a Asian country Ratna, India's highest civilian honour, before turning into the President. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1954) and Dr Zakir Hussain (1963) were the sooner recipients of {bharat|India|Republic of India|Bharat|Asian country|Asian nation} Ratna WHO later became the President of India. He was conjointly 1st|the primary} person and also the first bachelor to occupy Rashtrapati Bhawan.

During his term as president, he was dear referred to as the People's President, spoken communication that sign language the workplace of Profit Bill was the toughest call he had taken throughout his tenure. Kalam was criticised for his inaction decide the fate of twenty out of the twenty one mercy petitions submitted to him throughout his tenure. Article seventy two of the Constitution of {india|India|Republic of India|Bharat|Asian country|Asian nation} empowers the President of India to grant pardons, and suspend or commute the death sentence of convicts on cellblock. Kalam acted on just one mercy plea in his five-year tenure as president, rejecting the plea of criminal Dhananjoy Chatterjee, WHO was later hanged. maybe the foremost notable plea was from Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist WHO was condemned of conspiracy within the Dec 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament and was sentenced to death by the Supreme Court of India in 2004. whereas the sentence was regular to be distributed on twenty Gregorian calendar month 2006, the unfinished action on his mercy plea resulted in him remaining on cellblock. He conjointly took the arguable call to impose President's rule Bihar in 2005.

In Gregorian calendar month 2003, in associate degree interactive session in PGI Chandigarh, Kalam supported the requirement of Uniform Civil Code in India, keeping seeable the population of the country.

At the tip of his term, on twenty June 2007, Kalam expressed his disposition concerning|to contemplate} a second term in workplace provided there was certainty about his success within the 2007 presidential election. but, 2 days later, he determined to not contest the Presidential election once more stating that he wished to avoid involving Rashtrapati Bhavan from any political processes. He didn't have the support of the left parties, knife Sena and UPA constituents, to receive a revived mandate.
Nearing the termination of the term of the twelfth President Pratibha Patil on twenty four July 2012, media reports in Gregorian calendar month claimed that Kalam was seemingly to be appointive  for his second term. when the reports, social networking sites were notable for individuals supporting his movement. The BJP probably backed his nomination, spoken communication that the party would lend their support if the Trinamool Congress, Samajwadi Party and Indian National Congress projected him for the 2012 presidential election. A month earlier than the election, Mulayam Singh Yadav and Mamata Banerjee conjointly expressed their support for Kalam. Days subsequently, Mulayam Singh Yadav backed out, deed Mamata Banerjee because the solitary supporter.] On eighteen June 2012, Kalam declined to contest the 2012 presidential poll. He same of his call to not do so:

Many, many voters have conjointly expressed an equivalent would like. It solely reflects their love and heart on behalf of me and also the aspiration of the individuals. i'm extremely flooded by this support. This being their would like, I respect it. i need to impart them for the trust they need in Maine.


Kalam at Bijnor
After departure workplace, Kalam became a professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad and also the Indian Institute of Management Indore, associate unearned fellow of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Chancellor of the Indian Institute of area Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram, prof of region Engineering at Pakistani monetary unit University associated an adjunct at several different educational and analysis establishments across Asian nation. He tutored info technology at the International Institute of data Technology, Hyderabad and technology at Banaras Hindu University and Pakistani monetary unit University.

In might 2012, Kalam launched a programme for the youth of Asian nation referred to as the What am i able to offer Movement, with a central theme of defeating corruption. He additionally enjoyed writing Tamil poetry and enjoying the veenai, a South Indian string instrument. He was appointive  for the MTV Youth Icon of the Year award in 2003 and 2006. within the 2011 Hindi film i'm Kalam, Kalam is pictured as a positive influence on a poor however bright Rajasthani boy named Chhotu, United Nations agency renames himself Kalam in honour of his idol.

In 2011, Kalam was criticised by civil teams over his stand on the Koodankulam nuclear energy Plant; he supported the institution of the nuclear energy plant and was defendant of not speaking with the native folks. The protesters were hostile to his visit as they appeared to him to be a pro-nuclear individual and were unaffected by the assurances provided by him relating to the protection options of the plant.


Kalam died of a vast asystole on the evening of twenty seven July 2015 when he folded whereas delivering a lecture on 'Livable Planet' at Indian Institute of Management Shillong. Following the collapse on around six.30 pm, Kalam, was wheeled into Bethany hospitals' unit in an exceedingly crucial condition however he was confirmed dead when quite 2 hours he was taken to the hospital. Kalam would have turned eighty four in Oct 2015.Governor of Meghalaya, V. Shanmuganathan hurried to the hospital on hearing the news of Kalam's admission. Later Shanmughanathan aforementioned Kalam died at seven.45 pm even when medical team's best efforts to revive Kalam. On twenty eight July, morning Chief Secretary PBO Warjri told reporters that he had spoken to Union cabinet minister, L.C. Goyal soliciting for arrangements to be created for carrying Kalam's body to Delhi from Guwahati.
Government of Asian nation declared a seven-day state mourning as a mark of reference to the previous President.

President Pranab Mukherjee, Vice-President Hamid Ansari, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Home Minister Rajnath Singh and leaders condoled the previous Presidents' ending.


A P J Abdul Kalam delivering a speech
In his book Asian nation 2020, Kalam powerfully advocated associate action commit to develop Asian nation into a "knowledge superpower" and a developed nation by the year 2020. He regarded his work on India's nuclear weapons programme as the way to say India's place as a future superpower

I have known 5 areas wherever Asian nation features a core ability for integrated action: (1) agriculture and food processing; (2) education and healthcare; (3) info and communication technology; (4) infrastructure, reliable and quality power, surface transport and infrastructure for all elements of the country; and (5) autonomy in crucial technologies. These 5 area unitas are closely inter-related and if advanced in an exceedingly coordinated means, can cause food, economic and national security.

It was reported  that there was goodly demand in Asian country for translated versions of books authored by him.

Kalam took an energetic interest in different developments within the field of science and technology, as well as a research programme for developing bio-implants. He additionally supported Open supply technology over proprietary solutions, predicting that the employment of free software system on an outsized scale would bring the advantages of data technology to additional folks.

Kalam set a target of interacting with one hundred,000 students throughout the 2 years when his resignation from the post of scientific consultant in 1999. He explained, "I feel snug within the company of youth, notably highschool students. Henceforth, I will share with them experiences, serving to them to ignite their imagination and getting ready them to figure for a developed Asian nation that the road map is already on the market."

Awards and honours

Kalam's 79th birthday was recognised as World Student Day by the international organization. He has additionally received unearned doctorates from forty universities. the govt of Asian nation has honored him with the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and also the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific authority to the govt. In 1997, Kalam received India's highest civilian honour, the Republic of India Ratna, for his contribution to the research and modernization of defence technology in Asian nation.In 2005, Swiss Confederation declared twenty six might as "Science Day" to commemorate Kalam's visit to the country. In 2013, he was the recipient of the rocket scientist Award from the National area Society "to acknowledge excellence within the management and leadership of a space-related project.
Year of award or honourName of award or honourAwarding organisation
2014Doctor of ScienceEdinburgh University,UK
2012Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa)Simon Fraser University
2011IEEE Honorary MembershipIEEE
2010Doctor of EngineeringUniversity of Waterloo
2009Honorary DoctorateOakland University
2009Hoover MedalASME Foundation, USA
2009International von Kármán Wings AwardCalifornia Institute of Technology, USA
2008Doctor of Engineering (Honoris Causa)Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
2007Honorary Doctorate of Science and TechnologyCarnegie Mellon University
2007King Charles II MedalRoyal Society, UK
2007Honorary Doctorate of ScienceUniversity of Wolverhampton, UK
2000Ramanujan AwardAlwars Research Centre, Chennai
1998Veer Savarkar AwardGovernment of India
1997Indira Gandhi Award for National IntegrationIndian National Congress
1997Bharat RatnaGovernment of India
1994Distinguished FellowInstitute of Directors (India)
1990Padma VibhushanGovernment of India
1981Padma BhushanGovernment of India
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